Definitional and procedural aspects of Priming. Implicit Memory: Theoretical Issues. (1989), "The Development and Nature of Implicit Memory," In S. Lewandowsky, J.C.Dunn and K.Kirsner (Eds.) Null effects of study LOP on repetition priming have been also found for word completion (Graf and Mandler 1984) lexical decision (Kirsner, Milech and Standen, 1983, Expts 2 and 3) picture naming latency (Caroll, Byrne and Kirsner; 1985, Expts 1-3) and perceptual identification of pictures (Caroll, Byrne and Kirsner; 1985, Expt 4). A simple example of this are the words "chair" and "table" as the brain places them in the same category. In the literature the terms implicit and explicit memory has been used interchangeably to refer to tasks and methods of measurement or also to indicate hypothetical forms of memory - a term descriptive of mental content. (1984), "On the Primacy of Affect," American Psychologist, 39, 117-123. In consumer research Anand, Holbrook and Stephens (1988) have used a dichotic learning task to find support for the cognitive-affective model over the independence hypothesis. Brand names provide labels by which firms identify and promote their products and services. For example, exposing someone to the word "yellow" will evoke a faster response to the word "banana" than it would to unrelated words like "television." This activation account is however inconsistent with the current debate in implicit memory research where there is evidence about the formation of implicit new associations which can be acquired, used or retrieved implicitly (Graf and Schacter's; 1985,1987). Priming is named as such to evoke the imagery of a water well being primed. In this study, we overcame several methodological issues in past research to clarify age effects on implicit memory (priming) and their relationship to explicit memory (recognition, source memory). Lewecki (1986) presents an interesting aspect of the influence of implicit learning on judgment. There were two measures of perceptual fluency - (1) the time taken to identify the word correctly since PF was inversely related to latency of identification; and (2) accuracy of identification. As a starting point it can be useful to determine, using the RIC, whether the construct of implicit memory using the implicit memory measures can be replicated in the consumer research context. Even after going years without riding one, most people are able to hop on a bike and ride it effortlessly. Recalling the words to a song when someone sings the first few words 2. Johnston, William A. Veronica J. In P.A. Tulving,E. Squire L.R. Gollin,E.S., (1962), "Factors Affecting the Visual Recognition of Incomplete Objects: A Comparative Investigation of Children and Adults, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 15,583-590. Weldon, M.S. The example used above to illustrate implicit vs. explicit memory, using degraded words, was also a form of priming. Kirsner, K. D.Milech and P.Standen (1983), "Common and Modality-Specific Processes in the Mental Lexicon," Memory and Cognition,14,398-408. Evidence from Aging," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition,,15,41-49. Tulving E. (1972), "Episodic and Semantic Memory," In E. Tulving and W. Donaldson (Eds. Priming effects are mostly obtained at the same category level as the category primed. In all these studies, explicit memory tests showed a large LOP effect for the same study and test stimuli. There is however considerable turmoil regarding this issue in direct priming (see below) and the issue is analyzed at a more molecular level with no discernible agreement in the research community as to the appropriate theoretical (memory) framework. Vanderwert, M. (1984), "Priming by Pictures in Lexical Decision," Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 67-83. FINDINGS IN "PRIMING AND IMPLICIT MEMORY" RELEVANT. Lewandowsky, Kirsner and Bainbridge (1989) have suggested a sense-activation view to reflect implicit memory for new associations.Their data suggest that it is the re-instatement at the rating stage (after target stimulus or at the test stage) of the encoded sense of the word rather than the use of a new association between the cue (or context) and target that gives rise to implicit new associations. Tulving E. (1972), "Episodic and Semantic Memory," In E. Tulving and W. Donaldson (Eds. Direct memory tests (recall, recognition) make reference to a target event and success is achieved when the respondent/subject gives behavioral evidence of knowledge concerning that event. and N.J.Cohen (1984), "Human Memory and Amnesia," In G.Lynch,J.L.McGaugh and N.M.Weinberger (Eds. Implicit memory can be a task-based definition (Schacter 1985) and it can also be inferred from dissociation between two measures of memory (Graf and Schacter, 1985). An assumption is usually made in the literature that a particular method of testing reveals only one underlying form of memory and therefore different methods of testing would indicate evidence of different forms of memory (Graf and Schacter, 1987). (1970), "A Functional Model for Memory," In Models of Human Memory, 203-254, New York: Academic Press. The first finding is consistent with the idea of an independent decay implied by the concept of activation and the second can be predicted from the notion that repetition priming should be found only with stimulus materials that have pre-existing internal representations. Conceptually driven processes reflect subject-initiated activities such as elaborating, organizing and reconstructing; data-driven processes are initiated by the information or data that is presented in test materials. If they relied only on the search factor then perceptual fluency might not affect judged repetition status and perceptual fluency would vary across recognition outcomes in the following manner: hits = misses > false alarms = correct rejections. Musen Gail and Anne Treisman (1990), "Implicit and Explicit Memory for Visual Patterns," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 16 (1), 127-137. Other relevant factors of interest to consumer research including semantic priming and the specificity of priming effects, will be also briefly discussed. and D.Schacter (1985), "Implicit and Explicit Memory for New Associations in Normal and Amnesic Subjects," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 11, 501-518. 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