Hexavalent chromium is used in many industries. In these situations the chromium is not originally hexavalent, but the high temperatures involved in the process result in oxidation that converts the chromium to a hexavalent state. Welding (especially on stainless steel), spraying heavy-duty coatings and paints, and chrome plating are some of the processes where hexavalent chrome can be found. In stainless steel, chromium is in the metallic state, which is not hazardous. Chromium metal is added to alloy steel to increase hardenability and corrosion resistance. A major source of worker exposure to Cr(VI) occurs during "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel and other alloy steels containing chromium metal. Stainless steels are alloys of chromium and iron in which the chromium content varies from 10 to 26 percent. Welding with stainless steel produces chromium. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Chromium is next to nickel one of the basic alloy element of all groups of stainless steels. This data provides a snapshot of industry sectors and business subcategories where levels of airborne Cr(VI) have been found. Cr (VI) is known to cause cancer. Requirements to protect workers from Cr(VI) exposure are addressed in specific OSHA standards for general industry, maritime, and construction. Visit NIOSH’s page on Managing Chemical Safety in the Workplace to learn more about controlling chemical workplace exposures. Chromium 6, also known as hexavalent chromium, is the most toxic form of the metal chromium. That doesn’t mean it is limited to this material. It also may be used as an anticorrosive agent added to paints, primers, and other surface coatings. Hexavalent chromium compounds are used widely in metal finishing and chrome plating, stainless steel production, leather tanning, and wood preservatives. Highlights OSHA directives (instruction to OSHA staff) and letters of interpretation (official letters of interpretation of the standards) related to hexavalent chromium. It’s used in electroplating, welding, and chromate painting. Exposure to hexavalent chromium in welding fumes is primarily associated with welding stainless steel. Chromium-6 is used for chrome plating and the production of stainless steel as well as leather tanning, wood preservation, textile dyes, and pigments. During the welding process, chromium is converted to its hexavalent state, Chromium (VI). Hexavalent Chrome has been identified as a cause for health concerns and shown to be toxic. Here, it gets a little sticky. When heated, chromium-containing metal creates fumes that oxidize or form the valence state of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). Industry adds chromium (Cr) to iron and nickel to make metal alloys especially characterized by their high resistance to corrosion and oxidation. In summary, Hex Chrome, Hexavalent Chromium or Chromium 6 is found in Stainless Steel. In these situations the chromium is not originally hexavalent, but the high temperatures involved in the process result in oxidation that … Chromium compounds, such as hexavalent chromium, are widely used in electroplating, stainless steel production, leather tanning, textile manufacturing, and wood preservation. It is usually produced by an industrial process. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Most food processing and pharmaceutical equipment in factories is required to be stainless steel. NIOSH considers all Cr(VI) compounds to be occupational carcinogens. Occupational exposure to Cr (VI) occurs in chromate manufacturing, chrome plating, ferrochrome production, and stainless steel welding. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) is a collection of methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants in workplace air, and in the blood and urine of workers who are occupationally exposed. Hexavalent Cr is not released from stainless steel at any temperature [ 1], however arc welding stainless steel under some flux covers can produce hexavalent Cr (6) compounds in the form of fumes when Cr and Cr oxides react with the flux [ 2] …this occurs at the fusion point or melting point in the welding process, above 1400 C. Many workers in a variety of occupations are potentially exposed to Cr(VI) in the United States. Hexavalent chromium is used in many industries. Usually, chromium is not added to other types of steel, but it can be around at low levels, due to the use of scrap steel in the production process. Saving Lives, Protecting People, EPA Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium, OSHA Fact Sheet: Health Effects of Hexavalent Chromium, OSHA Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Hexavalent Chromium Standards, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Managing Chemical Safety in the Workplace, NIOSHTIC-2 search results on hexavalent chromium, NIOSH Criteria Document: Criteria for a Recommendation Standard for an Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium, NIOSH Criteria Document: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Welding, Brazing, and Thermal Cutting, NIOSH Comments on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Request for Information on Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium, NIOSH Docket 144: Hexavalent Chromium Criteria Document, EPA Chemistry Dashboard: Hexavalent Chromium, EPA Integrated Risk Information System Information (IRIS) on Chromium (VI), EPA SW-846 Test Method 0061: Determination of Hexavalent Chromium Emissions from Stationary Sources, NLM Hazardous Substance Data Bank: Chromium, NTP Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth Edition): Hexavalent Chromium, OSHA Guidance: Preventing Skin Problems from Working with Portland Cement, OSHA Safety and Health Topics: Hexavalent Chromium, New Jersey Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets: Chromium, European Chemicals Agency (ECHA): Chromium Hexavalent, International Chemical Safety Card: Chromium, International Chemical Safety Card: Chromium (VI) Oxide, IPCS INCHEM Environmental Health Criteria 61: Chromium, OECD Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Welders working with carbon and stainless steel welding, Steel mill workers in iron and steel foundries, Employees working in the electroplating, wood preservation, or textile dyeing industries. A: Hexavalent chromium is a toxic valence state (+6) form of the element chromium. These hexavalent compounds are typically found in plating solutions. Consequently, there is a potential for hexavalent chromium in the welding fume from these steels. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. OSHA has noted the primary sources in iron and steel foundries are furnace operations, torch cutting, and gouging and welding, and data from foundries would support this. Stainless steel is highly corrosion resistant. CDC twenty four seven. In the steel industry, stainless steel and chromium alloys contain about 11.5 – 30% chromium by weight. The amount of exposure to Cr(VI) depends on the amount of chromium in the metal as well as the type of welding process. Our research has found this layer to be dichromium trioxide or Cr2O3, which is a trivalent compound as opposed to chromium trioxide or CrO3, which is a hexavalent compound. The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG) helps workers, employers, and occupational health professionals recognize and control workplace chemical hazards. When cutting Stainless Steel with plasma, toxic compounds are released into the atmosphere which can cause harm to personnel working within a certain distance. The MSDS for these steel may or may not include chromium because, when present, chromium may constitute only a fraction of a percent of the metal. In addition, the U.S. imported 430,000 metric tons of chromium, primarily from South Africa, Kazakhstan, Russia and China. No, a stainless steel cathode will not produce hexavalent chromium, nor even trivalent chromium. • 18-8Mo stainless steel (active) • 18-8 stainless steel (active) • Ni-Resist (high-nickel cast iron) • Chromium stainless steel, 13% Cr (active) • Cast iron • Steel or iron • Aluminum alloy 2024 • Cadmium • Aluminum alloy 1100 • Aluminum (high purity) • Zinc • Magnesium and magnesium alloys. Cr(VI) compounds may be used as pigments in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics. What can be discharged is the subject of local, regional, and national laws, and I don't know what you are allowed to do in Denmark, but I do not foresee any chromium in the waste. On the other hand, stainless alloys and other high corrosion resistant alloys may contain much higher amounts of chromium and are more likely to create compliance obligations. Hexavalent Chromium (Hex Chrome) Control During Welding-Protecting Welders Welders have the potential to be overexposed to Hexavalent Chromium, also called Hex Chrome, or Chrome 6 during welding especially if its production welding, or full shift welding on stainless steel. In addition, it targets the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, skin and eyes. Hexavalent chromium can be formed when performing "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel or melting chromium metal. Hex chrome exposure can also occur on welding on chrome or the use of welding using chrome containing welding rods. : p.1265 The coating serves as a corrosion inhibitor, as a primer to improve the adherence of paints and adhesives, as a decorative finish, or to preserve electrical conductivity. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) Restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and 'waste electrical and electronic equipment' (WEEE) directives on the lead, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium content of stainless steels. Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is one of the valence states (+6) of the element chromium. In addition, it targets the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, skin and eyes. In 2011, U.S. production of chromium was estimated at 160,000 metric tons, coming almost entirely from recycling stainless steel scraps. 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